The manufacturing of technical ceramics requires highly developed processing machinery in order to ensure rational production and a constant high quality.
The main steps of the ceramic production are:
1) Production of ceramic granulate of required dimensions. - The raw material is first wet-ground in a ceramic ball mill to produce a slurry, then dried and granulated in spry drying equipment through fountaine spray drying and centrifugal spray drying.
2) Moulding - Ceramic granulate is loaded into a mould or cavity and a pressure is applied.
3) Sintering. Green parts are heated just under the melting temperature (1350°C 2100°C) in kilns in natural atmosphere for oxides, and in controlled atmosphere for non-oxides. During this process the grains weld together, giving the piece its final resistance.
4) In many cases further finishing operations are carried. The fired parts are machined to obtain narrow and/or extra-fine finishings. Grinding, lapping and polishing are performed with diamond tools.